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Electronics

Unipolar channels

The Unipolar channels of the TMSi equipment can be used for all sorts of ExG measurements (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, etc.). Since TMSi systems include no hardware filters other than the obligatory anti-aliasing (well above the band of interest), one always records the raw data.

The input stage for measuring unipolar electrophysiological signals is configured as a so called reference amplifier. All signals are amplified against the average of all connected unipolar inputs. With the help of our TMSi Polybench software package all kind of montages are possible: average reference, common reference, bipolar configurations, virtual references like Wilson point or Hjorth montages, etc. The patient ground electrode is required, but it is not an active input. It is meant as a way to keep patient potential and the amplifier potential at the same level, so that the amplifiers can function.

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Bipolar channels

The input stage for measuring bipolar electrophysiological signals is configured as an instrumentation amplifier: the difference between a ‘plus’ and ‘minus’ signal is amplified.

The advantage of a bipolar channel is that two electrodes can be used in one input channel, whereas two input channels are needed when using unipolar channels. The downside of using a bipolar channel is that one cannot perform (re-)montages afterwards, as is possible with unipolar channels. The patient ground electrode is required to keep patient potential and the amplifier at the same level.

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Auxiliary channels

Auxiliary channels can be used to connect various high level sensors for measuring for example movement, respiration, pressure, flow, galvanic skin response, temperature, etc.

Each auxiliary input has a 5-pin connector. Signals on this connector are +5V output, -5V output, GND, +signal input and -signal input. The +5V/-5V/GND pins can be used to power an active sensor. The + and - inputs are connected to an instrumentation amplifier with a gain of 1. An unconnected input will automatically be switched of (i.e. will show a zero signal). The output of the amplifier goes to the ADCs without any filtering.

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