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Electronics

Average Reference Amplifier

The amplifier architecture that is used in the majority of TMSi systems is called the Reference Amplifier.  When implemented correctly, it offers significant advantages over other amplifier designs.

TMSi uses average referencing as default because this makes it possible to re-reference in software to any montage you want. 

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Shielded cables

Movement artifacts can be diminished by shielding the electrode cables. Shielding means that the electrode cable consists of a small coax cable, where the outer layer is “shielding” the inner signal wire. Two types of shielding are available:

  • Patient ground shield
  • True Active Signal Shield (TAS2)

When the patient ground shield is used, the shield of the coax electrode cable is connected to the isolated zero of the power supply, the patient ground. The signal wire is protected against the influence of the mains power, but there is a considerable capacitance between the inner signal wire and the outer shield.  So when performing an ambulatory measurement, or any other measurement with moving cables, a large amount of movement artifacts will be seen, caused by variation in the capacitance of the cable.

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